Here is a look at Chechnya, a republic located in southwestern Russia, in the Caucasus Mountains region. Chechnya is bordered by Russia, Georgia, and the Russian republics of Dagestan and Ingushetia.
population: 1,506,700 (July 2021 estimate)
president: Ramzan Kadyrov (2007-present)
1991 – Chechnya begins fighting for independence from the crumbling Soviet Union.
1994 – The Russian Federation sends 35,000-40,000 troops to Chechnya to stop the insurgency.
February 1995 – Grozny falls to Russian forces.
May 27, 1996 – A ceasefire has been declared, but the fighting continues. Chechen rebels seize key government sites.
August 31, 1996 – The signing of a peace agreement and the withdrawal of Russian forces soon. Two years of fighting killed 120,000 Chechens and 3,000 Russian soldiers.
August 1999 – Islamic rebels launched incursions into neighboring Dagestan. Russian forces respond by moving into Chechnya in September.
September 1999 – Apartment buildings in Moscow, Buinaksk and Volgodonsk were bombed, killing nearly 300 people.
February 2000 – Russian forces took control of Grozny, and the conflict began to wind down.
July 2000 – Militants launched five suicide attacks on Russian security bases. The deadliest attack kills 54 people.
October 2002 – Chechen rebels seize a theater in Moscow and take more than 700 people hostage. Russian forces use an unknown gas to subdue the militants. Each of the rebels killed 41 and took 129 hostages.
May 2003 – 59 people were killed when two suicide bombers drove a truck full of explosives into a government compound in northern Chechnya.
June 2003 – 16 people were killed in a suicide attack at a concert in Moscow.
February 2004 – 40 dead and 100 wounded when a suicide bomber detonated a bomb on a Moscow metro train.
May 2004 – The assassination of Akhmad Kadyrov, President of Chechnya. Kadyrov was elected president of Chechnya with Russia’s support.
August 24, 2004 – Two Russian airliners are blown up almost simultaneously, killing 89 people.
August 31, 2004 – A female suicide bomber killed nine people and injured herself, and injured 51 others, when she detonated a bomb outside a subway station in northeastern Moscow.
1-5 September 2004 – Armed attackers storm a school in Beslan, southern Russia, taking at least 1,200 people hostage, including children. The hostage-takers have reportedly demanded the release of more than twenty prisoners and that Russia withdraw all its forces from Chechnya. Some of the kidnappers were reported to be wearing explosive belts used in suicide bombings.
September 2, 2004 – Some hostages are released.
September 3, 2004 – Russian forces ended the confrontation at the Beslan school, where Chechen rebels had taken several hundred students, teachers and parents hostage.
September 5, 2004 – The Russian government held a suspect because the death toll is at least 335 hostages, including 156 children, along with 26 hostage-takers and 10 Russian special forces soldiers.
September 17, 2004 – In an email posted to the Chechen rebels’ website Kavkazcenter.com, Chechen terrorist leader Shamil Basayev claimed responsibility for several recent terrorist attacks in Russia, including the bombing of the Moscow metro, bombings aboard two passenger planes, and a hostage-taking at a school in Beslan.
July 2006 – Shamil Basayev was killed, but the exact details are still unclear.
November 2006 – Abu Khafs, described as the leader of all foreign fighters in the North Caucasus, was killed by security forces.
June 2008 – According to UNICEF, since 1994, 700 people have been killed by landmines left over from the conflict between Chechnya and Russia.
April 2009 – Russia declared the end of its 10-year anti-terrorist operation in Chechnya, and the insurgency was largely suppressed.
March 29, 2010 – Female suicide bombers detonate explosives at two Moscow subway stations during the morning rush hour. Russian officials point out that the blame lies with Chechen separatists.
August 28, 2010 – Chechnya announces the killing of 12 militants and two police officers in a gun battle that saw 30 armed men attack the home of Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov.
October 19, 2010 – Three heavily armed men attack the parliament building in Grozny. Two police officers and a parliamentary aide were killed, and 17 people were injured in the attack.
February 7, 2011 – Chechen rebel leader Doku Umarov claimed responsibility for the January 24, 2011 bombing of Moscow’s Domodedovo airport that killed 36 people.
May 26, 2011 – The US has added the Caucasus Emirate, a Chechen group based in the North Caucasus, to its list of terrorist groups.
March 18, 2014 – According to a Chechen jihadist website, rebel leader Doku Umarov was killed.
December 4, 2014 – Gunmen described as Islamic militants attacked a building in Grozny, killing at least 20 people.
May 2017 – Kadyrov told the Interfax news agency that homosexuals do not exist. “In Chechen society, there is no such thing as a non-traditional orientation,” he says.
January 14, 2019 – The Russian LGBT Network released a statement regarding “a new wave of anti-LGBT persecution in Chechnya”. It is believed that approximately 40 people were arrested and at least two people died as a result of torture.